The Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General, along with our state and federal law enforcement partners, participated in the largest health care fraud takedown in history in June 2018. More than 600 defendants in 58 federal districts were charged with participating in fraud schemes involving about $2 billion in losses to Medicare and Medicaid. Since the last takedown, OIG also issued exclusion notices to 587 doctors, nurses, and other providers based on conduct related to opioid diversion and abuse. These enforcement actions protect Medicare and Medicaid and deter fraud — sending a strong signal that theft from these taxpayer-funded programs will not be tolerated. The money taxpayers spend fighting fraud is an excellent investment: For every $1 spent on health care-related fraud and abuse investigations in the last 3 years, more than $4 has been recovered.